Liptan

CORN INTEGRATED CROP MANAGEMENT

Integrated Crop Management (PTT) is an approach in the cultivation that gives a priority on the management of crops, lands, water, plants and organisms disruptors (OPT) in an integrated and site-specific way. Corn PTT aims to maintain or to increase the corn productivity in a sustainable and to increase the production efficiency. 
The ICM development in a certain location always considers the condition of its local resources, so that the technology applied in that location can be different to other locations. Thus, the technology applied with the ICM approach is a synergistic and site-specific. 
The application of the technology components can be done in stages and in a sustainable. In the application of the technology, it has to consider the ability and the willingness of the farmers. The determination on what technology components will be applied is done based on the problems, potentials, and the opportunities in the region. It can be identified through Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) or participatory study in a short time, ANO (assessment of needs and opportunities) or UPO (understanding of the problems and opportunities) or other similar methods. The component technologies that are arranged site-specific are expected to be able to solve the problems in the area. 
Maize/corn is generally grown on a dry land and wet land (rained or irrigated). The component technologies applied to the ICM approach are: 
  1. New high yielding varieties (hybrid or composite), high yield, resistance to the pests and the diseases as well as to the trouncing of the local environment or have certain special characteristics which are in accordance to the wishes of the farmers. 
  2.  Qualified and labeled seeds. It includes a high level of purity and high level of growth ability (95%). 
  • Qualified seed will grow simultaneously and more quickly, producing a healthy plant, resistance to the collapsed, uniform, and high yield potential. 
  • Treatment of seeds with 2 g metalaksil (product ingredients) for each kg of seeds aims to prevent the disease. 
  • The need for seed is 15-20 kg / ha, depending on the seed size. The smaller the size of the seeds (the weight of 1000 seeds < 200 g), the less the seeds needed. 
3. The plant population is 66600-75000 plants / ha, spacing of 75 cm x 40 cm with two plants per hole, or 75 cm x 20 cm with one plant per hole. The seed that has the ability to grow > 95%, can meet the population of 66000-75000 plants / ha. In the cultivation of corn, it is not recommended to do a stitching seed because the charging seed from stitch plant is not optimal.
4. Fertilization based on the crop needs and the soil nutrient status. The provision of fertilizers is different inter-location and among the type of the corn; hybrid or composite. The use of site-specific fertilizer increases the yield and it saves the use of fertilizer. Fertilizer recommendation of N, P, and K to the corn crop refers to the one of the following techniques: 
  • Omission test plot (minus 1 elements for N, P and K) 
  • The dosages and timing of fertilizer N based on the crop needs (it is given 2 times: 7-10 and 30-35 HST 
  • LCC (leaf color chart) is used at 40-45 HST (HST=day after planting) to detect the N sufficiency of the plant 
  •  On the dry land, the provision of fertilizer of P and K refers to the PUTK (device of Dryland Soil testing). 
  • P and K fertilization on paddy land based on the map of nutrient status of P and K at the scale of 1:50,000 
5. Land preparation 
  •  Perfect soil treatment (PST) on dry land 
  •  Without soil treatment (WST) or minimum soil treatment on paddy field 
6. Organic materials (manure 1.5-2.0 t / ha) is given as a cover planting seeds in the hole with a dose of 2-3 t / ha. 
  •  Organic fertilizer consists of organic materials of remaining plants, animal dung, green manure and compost (humus), which has undergone the process of weathering; it can be solid or liquid 
  • The technical requirements for organic fertilizer refers to Permentan No. 02/2006, unless it is produced for own purposes. 
  •  The provision of organic manure and chemical fertilizers in the right form and right amount is essential for the sustainability of an intensive land use
7. The construction of drainage or irrigation channels. 
  • On the dry land, the drainage channels: 
  1. Is required for drainage of water, especially during the rainy season, because the corn plants are sensitive to excess water 
  2.  Is built at the time of first weeding using a hoe or groove-making machine such as PAI-2 R designed by Balitsereal 
  • On wet land, irrigation channels: 
  1. Is required at the time of first weeding to facilitate setting of water 
  2. The creation of irrigation channels for every two rows of plants is more efficient than for each row of plants 
8. Pembumbunan, aims to give environmentally better roots, so plants can grow sturdy and not easily fall down 
  •  Pembumbunan along with the first weeding and the creation of the channel or after the second fertilization (35 HST), together with the second mechanically weeding 
9. Weed control, by mechanically or with a contact herbicide. The critical period of corn plants against the weeds is in the first two months. 
  •  Weeding I is done with hoe or groove making machine, if there are weeds 
  •  Weeding II is done using the groove making machine / hoe / paraquat herbicide with dose of 1-2 liters per hectare, at 30-35 HST 
  • The benefits of mechanical weeding with a groove-making machine: it is environmentally friendly, labor-saving, increase the amount of air in the soil, stimulating a better root growth. 
10. On time harvesting, is done if the cornhusk cob has dried or getting brown, the seeds have hardened, and it has formed a black layer of at least 50% in each row seed 
  •  Earlier harvest or harvest on the high moisture seeds causes wrinkled seeds, dull colors, and lighter weight seeds 
  •  Late harvest, especially in the rainy season, causing the growth of fungi, or even can cause the seeds germination 
  •  The corn cob which has been harvested should be immediately sun dried, or air dried when it is in the rainy seasons. 
  •  Do not save the corn cob in wet conditions, because it can cause the growth of fungi 
  •  The shelling of the seeds is done after the cob getting dry (water content of the seeds ± 20%), and it is done with a Sheller. 
  •  The shelled corn seeds are dried again until the water content of the seeds reaches about 14% 
  •  If the weather is rainy, the drying is done using a dryer. It is not recommended to store the corn seed with water content >14% in the sack for more than a month.
Source:
Department of Agriculture. 2008. School Guidelines Integrated Field Crop Management (SL-PTT) Corn
Research and Development Agency of Agriculture. 2009. General Guidelines for Corn Integrated Crop Management.
<Author by Rina DN>
 

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